PRIMER (Preventing Injecting by Modifying Existing Responses) is a multi-country mixed methods study with the aim of identifying whether specific interventions and factors influence the risk that individuals begin injecting drugs.

PRIMER pools qualitative and quantitative data from cohorts of people who use drugs across seven different cities: Vancouver, Canada; San Diego, USA; Tijuana, Mexico; Paris, Marseille, Bordeaux and Strasbourg, France.

PRIMER is the largest study of injection drug use initiation (n = 3,850) and is the first to examine structural responses to preventing injection initiation. Findings can potentially improve the development and scaling up of interventions to reduce transitions into injection drug use.

Financial Supporters

Canadian Institutes of Health Research


British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, Canada | Centre hospitalier régional et universitaire, Strasbourg, France | Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale, Marseille, France | Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France | Université René Descartes, Paris, France | University of California, San Diego, USA | University of Xochicalco, Tijuana, Mexico

Project Contact

Zachary Bouck